Interconnections Worldwide

Working internationally to share information, help build knowledge and support teamwork around babies, children and young people who are disabled, marginalised or vulnerable

The home of Team Around the Child (TAC) and the Multiagency Keyworker


Useful websites

---  Page under construction. Please contribute relevant websites of organisations in any country concerned in some way with integration / joint working  ---

Organisations’ websites

Caring Activism - citizen teamwork around vulnerable people:

EDUCO in Zlin, Cz Republic:

IFIC (International Foundation for Integrated Care):

INTERSYS Integrated Services:

New Economics Foundation on Co-production:

Integration in action

---  Page under construction. Please contribute examples of integration / joint working in any country. Either in child and family support services or in the academic world of teaching and research  ---


There are two sections:

1. Integration in service provision to people in need. (Below)

2. Integration in teaching and research in colleges and universities. (Scroll down)


Integration in service provision to support people in need

Please send us your examples of integration between any elements of health, education and social care that is an antidote to fragmentation. This might involve practitioners, service users and managers. It might be a working project or a plan.

Community Health Workers (CHWs) based in schools. Michigan, USA. With responsibility for conducting health assessments, helping the uninsured enrol for health care coverage, providing resources and referral services, and educating students, parents, caregivers and neighborhood residents about health issues. Web:

Co-production: This describes partnership and joint working between public services and the people who use them. Central to the concept is the belief that service users must have some significant control over how public services are designed and managed. For example:

See: Boyle, D. & Harris, M. (2009)

EDUCO: This is a non government organisation in Zlin, Czech Republic. It provides early child and family support to families whose child has special needs. Each family is offered a counsellor whose function approximates to the UK keyworker model. This is a whole approach integrating health, education and family support. Web:

[The] Partnership Initiative in Nursing and Social Services: Practical collaboration in services for older people described by Mark Lymbery, Associate Professor in Social Work, School of Sociology & Social Policy, University of Nottingham, UK. Web:  


Integration in teaching and research in colleges and universities

Please send us your examples of academic integration. This might include:
    • Classes or courses that bring together health, education and social work students
    • Courses that prepare students for integrated working after graduation
    • Research projects in which health, education and social care academics collaborate with each other
    • Research projects that investigate the subject of integration in service provision

Practitioners and managers will find integration less problematic if they are prepared for it in their training.

Health and Social Care as part of Master of Social Work at UBC: The Health and Social Care field of practice includes areas of social work practice usually subsumed into the concept of ‘health’, such as physical and mental health, addictions, and trauma. Its extension to ‘social care’ also includes areas that may be unrelated or only tangentially related to health, such as disabilities, age and aging. Courses belonging to this field of practice prepare students for direct social work practice in institutional and community settings as well as in policy development.

The Master of Social Work at the University of Melbourne: Course information includes: ‘You will undertake a specialist elective in the final semester. Throughout the degree you will find special areas of social work that interest you. You can follow these up more closely by undertaking a specialist elective in Health (and other topics)...'


Master of Social Work at University of Sydney: Course information includes ‘...equips you to take on leadership roles in social work, the health and community services sector and related fields of practice. If your ambition is to make a positive difference in mental health, women's services, corrections, disability support, child and family services, ...this is the program for you.’


Health and social care training at Kingston University, London: Course information includes, ‘The Faculty of Health, Social Care and Education is a unique partnership between Kingston University London and St George's, University of London...we place a strong focus on real-world learning, bringing professionals from different backgrounds together to share ideas and develop new ways to improve services.’


MNSW Adult Nursing and Social Work at Edge Hill University, UK: Course information includes ‘The programme is underpinned by the national requirements for both nursing and social work education... Practice learning experiences cover both nursing and social work... The focus in Year 3 is on working with complexity in health and social care, preparing you to address the care and support requirements of adults with complex health and social care needs. The aim is to bring together students, who are seeking registration in discrete fields, to share knowledge and experiences...’


University Of Wales Trinity Saint David. Early Years course.  (UK): I understand that this covers a variety of topics including education, care, health, working with families and ALN (additional learning needs).  The teaching team has a range of backgrounds including health, police, education and care sector. 

Web here


Research papers

---  Page under construction. Please contribute research papers about integration and joint working  ---

Research papers

Aboderin, I. & Epping-Jordan, J. (2017) Towards long-term care systems in sub-Saharan Africa. WHO series on long-term care. Geneva. Web:

Allard, A., Fellowes, A., Gardiner, A. & Hart, S. (2019) It takes leaders to break down siloes: Integrating services for disabled children. England: Council for Disabled Children
Davis, H. (2009) The Helping Relationship: Understanding Partnerships. In Interconnections Quarterly Journal. Vol 2, No 6.
King, G., Strachan, D., Tucker, M., Duwyn, B., Desserud, S. & Shillington, M. (2009) The application of a transdisciplinary model for early intervention services. In Infants & Young Children Vol 22, No 3, pp 211-223
Lloyd, H. M. et al. (2017) Collaborative action for person-centred co-ordinated care (P3C): an approach to support the development of a comprehensive system-wide solution to fragmented care. In Health Research Policy Systems. 2017; 15: 98.
Macdonald, N. (2018). The Great Divide: Separation of Care and Education in Wales and examination of policy, reform and research evidence. Web:


Books & publications

---  Page under construction - please contribute books and publications about integration / joint working  ---

Books & publications

Anning, A. (2010) Developing Multiprofessional Teamwork For Integrated Children's Services. UK: OUP

Boyle, D. & Harris, M. (2009) The Challenge of Co-production: How Equal Partnerships Between Professionals and the Public are Crucial to Improving Public Services. England: NESTA


Capra, F. & Luisi, P. L. (2014) The systems view of life: A unifying vision. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Davis, H. & Day, C. (2010) Working in partnership: The Family Partnership Model. London: Pearson

Frost, N. & Robinson, M. (2016) Developing multiprofessional teamwork for integrated children’s services: Research, policy, practice. UK: OUP

Housley, W. (2017) Interaction in Multidisciplinary Teams. UK: Routledge

Hennan, D. & Birrell, D. (2018) The Integration of Health and Social Care in the UK: Policy and Practice. England: Macmillan

Lawrence, J. & Thorne, E. (2016) A Systems Approach to Integrating Health in Education. USA: Cairn Guidance.

Levitt, S. (1994) Basic Abilities: A whole approach. UK: Souvenir Press

Limbrick, P. (2003) An Integrated Pathway for Assessment and Support. For children with complex needs and their families. UK: Interconnections

Limbrick, P. (2012) Horizontal Teamwork in a Vertical World: Exploring interagency collaboration and peop[le empowerment. UK: Interconnections

Limbrick, P. (2020) Integration Made Possible: A practical manual for joint working, multiagency, multidisciplinary, transdisciplinary. UK: Interconnections

Limbrick-Spencer, G. (2001) The Keyworker - a practical guide. UK: Handsel Trust with Wordworks

Littlechild, B. & Smith, R. (eds) (2013) A Handbook for Interprofessional Practice in the Human Services: Learning to Work Together. UK: Routledge

Lotrecchiano, G. R. & Misra, S. (Eds) (2019) Communications in Transdisciplinary Teams. California: Informing Science Press

Mallinson, I. (1995) Keyworking: Examination of a Method of Individualizing Care for Older People in Residential Establishments. UK: Avebury

Miller, R. (2019) Social Work and Integrated Care. UK: Routledge

Mitchell, R. (1993) Crisis Intervention in Practice: The Multidisciplinary Team and the Mental Health Social Worker (Studies of Care in the Community). UK: Avebury

Orelove, F. P. & Sobsey, D. (1996) Educating Children with Multiple Disabilities: A Transdisciplinary Approach. Baltimore: Brookes

Ovretveit, J. (1993) Co-ordinating Community Care: Multidisciplinary Teams and Care Management. UK: OUP

Payne, M. & Campling, J. (2000) Teamwork in Multiprofessional Care. London: Palgrave

Pfund, R. (2010) Pathways in palliative care. In Perspectives on palliative care for children and young people: A global discourse, eds Pfund, R. & Fowler-Kerry, S. Oxford: Radcliffe. 

Tebbett, K. et al. (2006) Management of Cerebral Palsy: A Transdisciplinary Approach. USA: Sage

Timmins, N. (2019) Leading for integrated care ‘If you think competition is hard, you should try collaboration’. London: King’s Fund

Townsley, R., Abbott, D. & Watson, D. (2004) Making a difference? Exploring the impact of multi-agency working on disabled children with complex healthcare needs, their families and the professionals who support them. Bristol: Policy Press

Sanderson, H. & Lepkowsky, M. B. (2014) Person-Centred Teams: A Practical Guide to Delivering Personalisation Through Effective Team-Work. London: Jessica Kingsley

Speck, P. (2006) Teamwork in Palliative Care: Fulfilling or Frustrating? UK: OUP

Stacey, M. (2009) Teamwork and Collaboration in Early Years Settings. UK: Learning Matters

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